Volume 14 Supplement 1

Proceedings of the 8th Global Arthritis Research Network (GARN) Meeting and 1st Bio-Rheumatology International Congress (BRIC)

Open Access

Two cases of multiple-drug-resistant adult-onset Still's disease treated successfully with tocilizumab - the relationship between interleukin 6 and 18

  • Kojiro Sato1,
  • Akinori Yamamoto1,
  • Yoshihiro Yoshida1 and
  • Toshihide Mimura1
Arthritis Research & Therapy201214(Suppl 1):P62

DOI: 10.1186/ar3663

Published: 29 February 2012

Background

Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory disease of unknown cause characterized by a high spiking fever, arthritis and evanescent rash. The mainstay of treatment is glucocorticoids with or without immunosuppressants. Recently, biologics such as anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies have also been tried in certain refractory cases.

Results

We have had two cases of AOSD which were treated successfully with anti-interleukin (IL-) 6-receptor antibody, tocilizumab (TOC). (Case 1) A 36-year-old woman who was diagnosed 8 years previously, and had been treated with various DMARDs plus etanercept (ETA) or adalimumab, presented with a high spiky fever and elevated liver enzymes. After excluding infection, she was treated with TOC. (Case 2) A 26-year-old man with new-onset AOSD, which was shown to be resistant to multiple immunosuppressants including infliximab and ETA, was treated with TOC starting 7 months after the diagnosis. In both cases, serum IL-18 was extremely high, and TOC promptly improved clinical symptoms and liver function. The high level of serum ferritin also became normalized. Interestingly, especially in case 2, the level of IL-18 remained high after the administration of TOC, suggesting that IL-18 is located either upstream of, or at the same level as, IL-6 in the pathogenesis of AOSD. Next, we cultured human monocytes derived from healthy controls with or without the presence of IL-6 and/or IL-18 in vitro. The level of ferritin in the supernatant was significantly increased only when both IL-6 and IL-18 were added, indicating that IL-6 and IL-18 have a synergistic effect on the production of ferritin (Figure 1).
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2Far3663/MediaObjects/13075_2012_Article_3407_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Figure 1

The level of ferritin in the supernatant of monocytes cultured with or without the presence of IL-6 and/or IL-18 (10 ng/mL each)

Conclusion

TOC can be a first-line biologic applicable against multiple-drug-resistant AOSD. If an IL-18 blocker is developed, however, it may be even more beneficial in that it may block the cascade of inflammation at a point further upstream.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Rheumatology and Applied Immunology, Saitama Medical University

Copyright

© Sato et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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