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Table 1 Signalling alterations occurring with ageing

From: Ageing, autoimmunity and arthritis: Perturbations of TCR signal transduction pathways with ageing – a biochemical paradigm for the ageing immune system

Signalling alteration Role in T cells
Intracellular free Ca2+ Early T-cell activation
Myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production Calcium release
Protein kinase C isoform translocation T-cell activation
CD69 expression Activation surface marker
CD71 expression Activation surface marker
CD28 expression Costimulatory molecule
Membrane fluidity Protein trafficking
Cholesterol content Lipid rafts movement
Rafts-associated proteins Early T-cell activation, immune synapse formation
NF-AT distribution Calcium signalling
Regulation of cellular cholesterol Molecule sorting, lipid rafts formation
Rafts coalescence T-cell activation, immune synapse formation
Lck activation ZAP-70, ITAM phosphorylation
Linker of activated T cells activation Signalling platform
Fyn activation ZAP-70, ITAM phosphorylation
ZAP-70 activation Linker of activated T cells activation
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation Late T-cell activation, proliferation
p38 activation Late T-cell activation, proliferation
Proteasome activity NF-κB relocalization