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Table 2 Soluble mediators regulating fibroblast proliferation

From: Fibroblast biology Signals targeting the synovial fibroblast in arthritis

Effect Factors Examples of cellular and tissue source Reference
+ AMDGF Alveolar macrophage [16]
+ aFGF, bFGF Brain, retina, bone matrix, endothelial cells, macrophage [17]
+ CTAP-III Platelet  
+ CTAP-V Platelet  
+ EGF and TGF-α Granulocyte, ectodermal cells, kidney, duodenal gland, platelet [18]
- Interferon-γ T lymphocyte, NK cell [19]
+ IGF-I (SmC) Fibroblast, skeletal cell, liver, endothelial cell, T cell [20]
+ IGF-II (MSA) Liver [21]
+ IL-1α and IL-β Monocyte/macrophage, Langerhans cell, other dendritic cells, T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte,  
   NK cell, large granular lymphocyte, vascular endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell, fibroblast,  
   thymic epithelial cell, astrocyte, microglia, keratinocyte, chondrocyte  
+ IL-1 inhibitor Monocyte [22]
+ PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, Platelet, macrophage, endothelial cell, fibroblasts, vascular smooth cells, glial cell, type I astrocyte,  
  PDGF-AB kidney, epithelial cell, mesangial cells  
+ TCDGF T cell [23]
+ TGF-β Platelets, macrophage, T cell, skeletal muscle cell, fibroblast [24]
+ TNF-β Lymphocyte [25]
  1. +, Stimulation; -, inhibition. aFGF, acidic fibroblast growth factor; AMDGF, alveolar macrophage-derived growth factor; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CTAP, connective tissue-activating peptide; EGF, epidermal growth factor; IGF, insulin-like growth factor; IL, interleukin; NK, natural killer; PDGF, platelet derived growth factor; PMN, polymorphonuclear cell; TCDGF, T cell derived growth factor; TGF, transforming growth factor; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.