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Table 1 Cytokine involvement in various experimental arthritis models

From: Anti-cytokine therapy in chronic destructive arthritis

     Cytokine involvement
     Early inflammation Erosive arthritis
Arthritis Model Species References Principal target or trigger TNF IL-1 TNF IL-1
SCW-A Mouse [32] Macrophages ++ - - ++
SCW flare Mouse [33] T cells/macrophages + + - ++
SCW flare Rat [46,77] T cells/macrophages + +   ++
AIA Mouse [35,36,38] T cells/IC ± ±   ++
AIA Rabbit [37] T cells/IC + + ± ++
AIA flare Mouse [38] T cells ± + - ++
CIA Mouse [6,7,8,9,10,11] T cells/IC + ++ +* ++
ICA Mouse [40] IC - ++ - ++
AA Rat [45] T cells + + +* +
  1. Cytokine involvement, based on experiments with neutralizing antibodies, started at the onset of arthritis. It does not reflect potential involvement during preimmunization (CIA and AIA). SCW-A flares reflect the situation after three consecutive SCW flares with intervals of 7 days. AIA flare was induced by antigen rechallenge at day 21. CIA, collagen-induced arthritis; ICA, passive immune complex (IC) arthritis. *Efficacy of anti-TNF treatment only when started at onset of first signs of arthritis.