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Table 1 Selected mast cell mediators and their potential roles in arthritis

From: Mast cells in inflammatory arthritis

Mediator Some relevant functions
Histamine Vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, fibroblast/chondrocyte activation
Heparin Angiogenesis, osteoclast differentiation and activation
Neutral proteases Matrix degradation, leukocyte recruitment, fibroblast activation
TNF Leukocyte recruitment, fibroblast/chondrocyte activation
Eicosanoid mediators
PGD2 Vascular permeability, neutrophil recruitment
LTB4 Vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment and activation
Cysteinyl leukotrienes Vascular permeability, immunomodulatory (LTC4)
IL-1 Leukocyte recruitment, fibroblast/chondrocyte activation, angiogenesis
IL-2 Lymphocyte stimulation
IL-3 Leukocyte growth factor
IL-4 Immunomodulatory, profibrotic
IL-6 Activation of leukocytes and fibroblasts
IL-8 Neutrophil recruitment
IL-10 Immunomodulatory
IL-13 Immunomodulatory, B cell stimulation
IL-18 Angiogenesis, lymphocyte stimulation
TNF Leukocyte recruitment, fibroblast/chondrocyte activation, angiogenesis
IFN-γ Activation of synovial macrophages
TGF-β Immunomodulatory, fibroblast mitogen, angiogenesis
PDGF Fibroblast mitogen
VEGF Fibroblast mitogen, angiogenesis
bFGF Fibroblast mitogen
NGF Fibroblast mitogen
MCP-1 Leukocyte recruitment
MIP-1α, MIP-1β Leukocyte recruitment, osteoclast differentiation
RANTES Leukocyte recruitment
  1. bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; LTB4, leukotriene B4; LTC4, leukotriene C4; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MIP, macrophage inflammatory protein; NGF, nerve growth factor; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; PGD2, prostaglandin D2; RANTES, regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor. See text for references.