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Table 3 Signs of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 12 patients under anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha treatment

From: Systemic lupus erythematosus induced by anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha therapy: a French national survey

Sign of SLE Number of patients
Skin (≥ 1 SLE skin criteria) 11
General (fever, weight loss, asthenia) 9
Musculoskeletal (arthritis, myositis, myalgias) 10 (6 arthritis, 3 myositis, 1 myalgia)
Serositis, lung, neuritis, phlebitis; haematological abnormalities, elevated muscle enzymes 3, 1, 1 and 1, respectively; 12 and 3, respectively
Antibody testing  
   Positive for ANA (>1/160) 12
   Positive for anti-dsDNA antibodies (>40 UI) 11
   Positive anti-ENA, anti-histone, anti-cardiolipid 5, 2 and 6, respectively
Recovery  
   After treatment withdrawn (with/without steroids) 12 (4 and 8)
   Delay in recovery (median and range) 8 weeks (3–16 weeks)
  1. Ten females, two males; nine patients treated with infliximab and three patients treated with etanercept. ANA, antinuclear antibodies; dsDNA, double-strand DNA; ENA, positive anti-extractable nuclear antigensantibodies.