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Table 2 Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis patients and control individuals

From: Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

Marker Controls Patients Unadjusted P (multivariable adjusted)
     Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c Model 4d
VCAM-1 (pg/ml) 506 (253–1067) 747 (391–2077) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001 0.08
ICAM-1 (pg/ml) 231 (82–857) 366 (135–993) <0.0001 0.0002 <0.0001 0.0005 0.08
ELAM-1 (pg/ml) 48 (7–178) 58 (12–149) <0.0001 0.02 0.02 0.7 0.08
  1. Results are expressed as median (range). Unadjusted comparisons were done using the Mann–Whitney U-test and adjustments for potentially explanatory variables were made using logistic regression models. aAdjusted for disease-modifying antirheumatic drug and prednisone use. bAdjusted for traditional risk factors (age; sex; race; smoking, alcohol and exercising status; diabetes; waist; systolic blood pressure; total cholesterol; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides). cAdjusted for nontraditional risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin IL-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α). dAdjusted for traditional and nontraditional risk factors. ELAM, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; VCAM, vascular adhesion molecule.