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Table 4 Number of patients and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction by sex, race, diabetes and medications used

From: Biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis

  Number VCAM-1 (pg/ml) ICAM-1 (pg/ml) ELAM-1 (pg/ml)
Sex     
Female 64 750 (391–2073) 356 (135–993) 58 (12–144)
Male 10 698 (463–1814) 480 (235–805) 60 (38–149)
Race     
Caucasian 68 750 (391–2073) 366 (135–993) 61 (12–149)
Asian 6 572 (463–971) 352 (235–699) 49 (35–82)
Diabetes     
Yes 5 674 (554–1338) 376 (235–455) 55 (52–129)
No 69 749 (391–2073) 365 (135–993) 59 (12–149)
COX-2 inhibitor use     
Yes 20 689 (475–2073) 371 (145–749) 79 (25–129)
No 54 750 (391–2001) 363 (135–993) 55 (12–149)
Traditional NSAID use     
Yes 19 766 (493–2001) 366 (135–993) 68 (16–149)
No 55 703 (391–2073) 365 (145–761) 55 (12–129)
Aspirin use     
Yes 6 719 (463–2073) 346 (219–595) 40 (23–94)
No 68 747 (391–2001) 366 (135–993) 62 (12–149)
Oestrogen use     
Yes 24 673 (445–2001) 311 (181–993) 53 (12–83)
No 50 786 (391–2073) 389 (135–805) 64 (20–149)
DMARD use     
Yes 56 726 (391–2073) 368 (145–805) 56 (12–149)
No 18 816 (567–2001) 358 (135–993) 64 (34–115)
Prednisone use     
Yes 11 930 (391–2073) 455 (181–761) 94 (23–129)
No 63 724 (445–2001) 361 (135–993) 55 (12–149)
Antihypertensive agent use     
Yes 23 744 (569–2073) 414 (219–805) 66 (16–149)
No 51 758 (391–2001) 350 (135–993) 54 (12–137)
  1. Results for biomarkers are expressed as median (range). Data were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test. No comparisons were significant at P ≤ 0.01. COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; ELAM, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; VCAM, vascular adhesion molecule.