LEF-M abrogates cytokine production in DCs. Dendritic cells (DCs) were differentiated and subsequently activated (100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) in the presence or absence of the indicated concentrations of the active metabolite of leflunomide (LEF-M). Cell-free supernatants were collected 48 hours after addition of LPS and then analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Shown are mean percentage of control responses ± standard error of the mean for IL-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10, calculated from at least 10 independent experiments. Student's t-tests were calculated for control DCs versus LEF-M-treated DCs. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01. Mean cytokine levels (± standard deviation) in stimulated control cultures were 793 ± 343 pg/ml (IL-10), 23.6 ± 7.6 ng/ml (IL-12) and 2.9 ± 1.1 ng/ml (TNF-α).