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Figure 1 | Arthritis Research & Therapy

Figure 1

From: Androgen conversion in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes – androstenedione and testosterone inhibit estrogen formation and favor production of more potent 5α-reduced androgens

Figure 1

Complexity of androgen conversion in peripheral cells. DHEAS, DHEA, and ASD are the major androgen precursors, which are released from the adrenal gland (particularly relevant in postmenopausal women). These androgens enter the peripheral cell to be converted to downstream metabolites using diverse enzyme pathways. 3β-HSD, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (converts delta 5 androgens into delta 4 androgens); 5α-DH, 5α-dihydro; 5-α-R, 5α-reductase; 17β-HSD, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; ADIOL, androstenediol; ASD, androstenedione; AROM, aromatase; DHEA, dehydroepiandrosterone; DHEAS, DHEA sulfate; DST, DHEA sulfotransferase; E1, estrone; E2, 17β-estradiol; E3, 16α-hydroxylated E2 (also known as estriol); OH, hydroxyl group at the indicated position; ST, sulfatase; T, testosterone.

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