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Table 1 Functional properties of the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) (based on reviews [1-4])

From: Expression and functional properties of antibodies to tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in rheumatoid arthritis

Property TIMP-1 TIMP-2 TIMP-3 TIMP-4
Approximate protein size 28 kDa 21 kDa 24/27 kDa 22 kDa
Localisation Soluble Soluble + cell surface Extracellular matrix Cell surface, tissue-specific
Intracellular activation Receptor(s) Nuclear translocation Receptor(s) No Not known
Proteinase type inhibition Secreted MMP, ADAMTS Secreted MMP, MT-MMP MT-MMP, ADAMTS Secreted MMP, MT-MMP
Apoptosis Inhibits (BCL-2 regulation) Inhibits Promotes (TACE, death receptors) Promotes
Angiogenesis Inhibits Inhibits Inhibits Inhibits
Proliferation Stimulates Stimulates Inhibits Stimulates
Tumour growth Promotes Promotes Inhibits Not known
Knockout mice Resistance to Pseudomonas infection Impaired pro-MMP2 activation Lung emphysema, chronic hepatitis. High TNF-α Not known
  1. ADAMTS, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin motifs; MMP, matrix metallproteinase; MT-MMP, membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase; TACE, tumour-necrosis-factor-α-converting enzyme; TIMP, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.