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Table 2 Scheme for clinical and ethical management of rhesus monkeys with collagen-induced arthritis

From: Modeling human arthritic diseases in nonhuman primates

Disease score Characteristics Monitoring Maximal durationa
0 No disease symptoms Daily Length of experiment
0.5 Fever (>0.5°C) 2 × per week 12 weeks
1 Apathy; lessened mobility; loss of appetite Daily 10 weeks
2 Weight loss; warm extremitiesb; treatable pain without STS 2 × per weekc, or daily 6 weeks
3 Redness of joints (with STS)b; normal flexibility of extremities 2 × per week 4 weeks
4 Severe STS of joints (plus redness); joint stiffnessb 2 × per week 2 weeks
5 Untreatable pain; immobility of jointsb; weight loss >25% 2 × per weekc, or daily 18 hours
  1. aThe duration of discomfort is calculated cumulatively. bCan be assessed only in the sedated monkey and therefore cannot be done more than twice a week for ethical reasons. cFor characteristics requiring sedation. STS, soft-tissue swelling.