Skip to main content

Table 2 Established risk factors and associative markers for the development of congestive heart failure

From: Myocardial dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: epidemiology and pathogenesis

Associated with CHF risk in the general population Shown to be comparatively over-represented in rheumatoid arthritis
Clinical risk factors
   Systemic hypertension +/-
   Coronary atherosclerosis/myocardial infarction +++
   Diabetes -
   Valvular heart disease +
   Intrinsic pulmonary disease +(+)
   Sleep apnea/sleep-disordered breathing +(?)
   Smoking +
   Obesity +
Echocardiographic predictors
   Asymptomatic left ventricular enlargement +
   Increased left ventricular mass +
   Asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction (+)/-
   Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction +++
Biochemical risk markers
   Cardiac natriuretic hormones +
   Hyperhomocysteinemia +
   Inflammatory cytokines +++
   Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ++
Rare causes of CHF in the general population
   Myocardial nodules +
   Restrictive pericarditis +(+)
   Coronary arteritis +
  1. CHF, congestive heart failure. + evidence for increased prevalence; -, no evidence for increased prevalence; +/-, evidence equivocal for increased prevalence; +(?), questionable/insufficient evidence for increased prevalence.