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Table 1 Important microbial ligands of Toll-like receptors

From: Molecular mechanisms of autoimmunity triggered by microbial infection

Receptor Ligand Pathogen
TLR1 Triacyl lipopeptides Bacteria, mycobacteria
TLR2 Peptidoglycan Gram-positive bacteria
  Lipoteichoic acid Gram-positive bacteria
  Lipoprotein, lipopetides Different pathogens
  Atypical lipopolysaccharide Leptospira interrogans
  Glycoinositolphospholipids Trypanozoma cruzii
  Zymosan Fungi
TLR3 Double-stranded RNA Viruses
TLR4 Lipopolysaccharide Gram-negative bacteria
  Fusion protein Respiratory syncytial virus
  Taxol Plants
TLR5 Flagellin Bacteria
TLR6 Diacyl lipopeptides Mycoplasma
TLR7 Single-stranded RNA Viruses
  Imidazoquinoline, Loxoribine, Bropirimine Synthetic compounds
TLR8 Single-stranded RNA Viruses
  Imidazoquinoline Synthetic compounds
TLR9 CpG-DNA Bacteria, viruses
  Hemozoin Plasmodium falciparum
TLR10 Nd Nd
TLR11 Nd Uropathogenic E. coli
  Profilin-like molecule Toxoplasma gondii
  1. CpG, unmethylated cytosine-guanosine; nd, not determined; TLR, Toll-like receptor.