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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study groups

From: Aerobic exercise and its impact on musculoskeletal pain in older adults: a 14 year prospective, longitudinal study

  Runners' Association (n = 492) Community controls (n = 374) Runners
    Ever (n = 565) Never (n = 301)
Male (%) 83 56 84 50
Mean (SE)     
   Age (years) 61.6 (0.25)a 65.1 (0.36) 61.7 (0.25)a 65.6 (0.41)
   Education (years) 16.6 (0.11) 16.7 (0.13) 16.7 (0.10) 16.5 (0.15)
   BMI (kg/m2) 22.9 (0.11)a 24.2 (0.18) 23.0 (0.11)a 24.3 (0.21)
   Pain (VAS 0–100; 0 = no pain) 20.7 (1.05)a 25.7 (1.27) 20.4 (0.98)a 26.6 (1.44)
   Hospital days/past year 0.27 (0.05) 0.34 (0.08) 0.24 (0.05) 0.41(0.09)
   Running miles (week) 25.5 (0.65)a 2.1 (0.30) 23.1 (0.64)a 1.06 (0.29)
   Exercise minutes (week) 313.6 (9.2)a 123.2 (6.8) 290.8 (8.7)a 119.9 (7.2)
   Cigarette (packs/day) 0.02 (0.01)a 0.08 (0.02) 0.01 (0.01)a 0.11 (0.02)
   Alcohol (oz./day) 1.08 (0.06) 1.22 (0.06) 1.11 (0.05) 1.22 (0.07)
Subjects (%) with history of     
   Arthritis 35 41 35* 43
   Fractures 53 47 52 48
   Cancer 0.002 0.005 0.004 0.003
  1. ap < 0.05 Runners' Association versus community controls or Ever-Runners versus Never-Runners. BMI, body mass index; VAS, visual analog scale.