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Table 2 Baseline characteristics by study group and gender

From: Aerobic exercise and its impact on musculoskeletal pain in older adults: a 14 year prospective, longitudinal study

  Runners' Association Community Controls Ever-Runners Never-Runners
  Female (n = 82) Male (n = 410) Female (n = 163) Male (n = 211) Female (n = 93) Male (n = 472) Female (n = 152) Male (n = 149)
Mean (SE)         
   Age (years) 59.9 (0.5)a 62.0 (0.3)a 65.5 (0.5) 64.6 (0.5) 60.3 (0.5)a 62.0 (0.3)a 65.7 (0.6) 65.5 (0.6)
   Education (years) 16.3 (0.3) 16.6 (0.1)a 15.8 (0.2) 17.5 (0.2) 16.4 (0.3)a 16.8 (0.1) 15.7 (0.2) 17.3 (0.2)
   BMI (kg/m2) 21.6 (0.2)a 23.2 (0.1)a 23.2 (0.3) 25.0 (0.2) 21.6 (0.2)a 23.3 (0.1)a 23.4 (0.3) 25.3 (0.3)
   Pain (VAS 0–100; 0 = no pain) 20.9 (2.6)a 20.7 (1.2) 27.6 (2.1) 23.0 (1.6) 19.6 (2.4)a 20.5 (1.1) 28.8 (2.1) 24.3 (1.9)
   Hospital days/past year 0.09 (0.1)a 0.31 (0.1) 0.45 (0.1) 0.25 (0.1) 0.08 (0.0)a 0.28 (0.1) 0.48 (0.2) 0.33 (0.1)
   Running miles (week) 19.4 (1.3)a 26.9 (0.7)a 0.99 (0.4) 3.0 (0.4) 17.4 (1.34)a 24.3 (0.7)a 0.9 (0.4) 1.3 (0.4)
   Exercise minutes (week) 310.8 (19.8)a 314.2 (10.3)a 115.8 (10.0) 129.0 (9.1) 283.9 (18.9)a 292.2 (9.7)a 118.2 (10.8) 121.6 (9.4)
   Cigarette (packs/day) 0.09 (0.04) 0.01 (0.04)a 0.13 (0.0) 0.05 (0.0) 0.05 (0.0)a 0.01 (0.0)a 0.16 (0.0) 0.06 (0.0)
   Alcohol (oz./day) 1.0 (0.1) 1.1 (0.1)a 1.0 (0.8) 1.4 (0.1) 0.98 (0.1) 1.14 (0.1)a 1.01 (0.1) 1.46 (0.1)
Subjects (%) with history of         
   Arthritis 45 33 47 36 42 33 49 36
   Fractures 54 53 41 52 51 52 42 54
   Cancer 0 0.002 0 0.009 0 0.004 0 0.007
  1. ap < 0.05 male or female Runners' Association versus matched community controls or male or female Ever-Runners versus matched gender Never-Runners. BMI, body mass index; VAS, visual analog scale.