Dose-dependent effects of anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody (a-CD40L) treatment on antigen-induced arthritis. Effects on (a) knee joint swelling and (b) histology (n = 9). Hematoxylin-eosin stained knee sections were evaluated as described in Figure 1. (c,d) Effects on the serum levels of methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA)-specific IgG isotypes and autoantigen-specific IgGs (against collagen type I (Col I), collagen type II (Col II) and proteoglycan (PG));**P ≤ 0.01, (2.5 μg a-CD40L versus buffer-treated AIA control). #P ≤ 0.05, ##P ≤ 0.01, (10 μg a-CD40L versus buffer-treated AIA control). Infl., inflammation; destr., destruction; arthr., total arthritis score.