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Table 4 Combined effects of the VDR genotypes and daily calcium intake on odds of hand osteoarthritis (OA)

From: Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of hand osteoarthritis in Finnish women

Carriage of the aT haplotype Low calcium intake n Overall OA Symmetrical OA Osteophyte
No No 131 1.0 1.0 1.0
No Yes 43 1.02 (0.46–2.30) 1.73 (0.69–4.36) 0.28 (0.06–1.35)
Yes No 269 0.92 (0.56–1.51) 1.58 (0.88–2.85) 0.39 (0.18–0.85)
Yes Yes 100 1.58 (0.85–2.93) 2.64 (1.29–5.40) 0.52 (0.17–1.56)
  1. Data presented as the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) adjusted for age (years), height (cm), occupation (1 = dentists, 2 = teachers [reference group]), hormone therapy (1 = ever used, 2 = never used [reference group]), current body mass index (1 = high, 2 = moderate, 3 = low [reference group]), coffee consumption (number of cups per day), alcohol consumption (number of portion per week), and smoking history (1 = never smoked [reference group], 2 = ever smoked).