ETS family members activate the CCN2 promoter. (a) Schematic diagram of CCN2 promoter constructs used for this study: -805, construct containing -805 to +17 of the CCN promoter; -244, construct containing -244 to +17; -86, construct containing -86 to +17; Smadmut, construct containing mutated Smad element in the context of -805 to +17; GGAAmut, construct containing mutated GGAA element in the context of -805 to +17 [9,10,18,19]. Characterization of the CCN2 promoter response to (b) Ets-1 or (c) Fli-1. Different CCN2 promoter/reporter constructs, as indicated, were transfected into fibroblasts with either empty expression vector or expression vector encoding Ets-1, as described in Materials and methods. Fold increase with overexpression of (b) Ets-1 or (c) Fli-1, relative to the activity observed in the presence of empty control expression vector is shown. Average ± standard deviation (N = 6) of a representative experiment is shown (p < 0.05; asterisks indicate significantly modified by overexpression of transcription factor). Reporter activity was adjusted for differences in transfection efficiencies among samples using a control β-galactosidase expression vector.