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Table 1 Patient characteristics, NPSLE manifestations and abnormalities detected on conventional MRI

From: Association between microscopic brain damage as indicated by magnetization transfer imaging and anticardiolipin antibodies in neuropsychiatric lupus

Age (years) Neuropsychiatric symptomsa IgM aCLs IgG aCLs Lac Anti-dsDNA Anti-ENA Radiological abnormalities
23 Acute confusional state - - - + + NDA
24 Primary generalized tonic clonic seizures + + + - - NDA
25 Primary generalized absence seizures + + + - - PAIS (6 lesions, 4 mm) cerebral atrophy
26 Primary generalized absence seizures - + - - + NDA
27 Primary generalized tonic clonic seizures + + + + + NDA
27 Primary generalized tonic clonic seizures - - + - + NDA
29 Cerebrovascular diseaseb + - + - NA NDA
30 Anxiety disorder - - - - + NDA
30 Cognitive dysfunction - + + - + NDA
30 Aseptic meningitis - - - - + NDA
32 Cerebrovascular diseaseb + + + NA - PAIS (29 lesions, 6 mm) cerebral atrophy, cerebellar infarction (9 mm)
36 Cerebrovascular diseaseb; cognitive dysfunction - - + - - NDA
38 Primary generalized tonic clonic seizures + + + - - PAIS (2 lesions, 6 mm) cerebral atrophy, cerebellar infarction (9 mm)
39 Aseptic meningitis + + + - + NDA
41 Chorea - - + + + PAIS (7 lesions, 4 mm)
41 Mononeuropathy (single); cognitive dysfunction - + + + + PAIS (1 lesion, 7 mm)
49 Mood disorder with depressive features + - - - - PAIS (21 lesions, 3 mm)
65 Cerebrovascular diseaseb + - + - + CAIS
  1. aAccording to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions for neuropsychiatric lupus syndromes [2]. bChronic multifocal disease. aCL, anticardiolipin antibody; anti-dsDNA, antibodies directed agains double stranded DNA; anti-ENA, antibodies directed against extractable nuclear antigen; Lac, lupus anticoagulant; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; NA, not available; NDA, no detectable abnormalities on conventional MRI; CAIS/PAIS, confluent and punctate areas of increased signal (number of lesions, mean size of lesions); NPSLE, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.