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Table 1 Systemic lupus erythematosus patient characteristics and disease parameters

From: Cytokine polymorphisms influence treatment outcomes in SLE patients treated with antimalarial drugs

Total SLE patients 192
Sex (female/male) 178/14
Age (mean ± sd) 47.24 ± 14.63
Age at diagnosis (mean ± sd) 33.88 ± 14.53
Disease duration (mean ± sd) 13.16 ± 7.83
Clinical manifestations, n (%)  
   Malar rash 102 (53.1)
   Discoid lesions 38 (19.8)
   Subacute cutaneous lesions 33 (17.2)
   Photosensitivity 99 (51.6)
   Oral ulcers 63 (32.8)
   Arthritis 139 (72.4)
   Serositis 48 (25.0)
   Renal disorder 56 (29.2)
   Neurological disorder 15 (7.8)
   Hematological disorder 111 (57.8)
Treatment, n (%)  
   None/NSAIDS 23 (12.0)
   Antimalarials 114 (59.4)
   Corticosteroids 126 (65.6)
   Immunosuppressive drugsa 41 (21.4)
  1. aMethotrexate, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine A or mycophenolate mophetil. NSAIDS, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SD, standard deviation; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.