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Table 2 Tumor necrosis factor-α serum levels in healthy controls and systemic lupus erythematosus patients

From: Cytokine polymorphisms influence treatment outcomes in SLE patients treated with antimalarial drugs

  n TNFα (pg/ml)a p
Healthy controls 215 19.66 (53.93) 0.020
SLE patients 171 33.57 (132.55)  
Patient treatment:    
   None/NSAIDS 21 60.78 (158.15) 0.136
   Antimalarials 36 16.64 (165.57)  
   Antimalarials and corticosteroids 54 24.95 (88.49)  
   Corticosteroids 26 60.01 (145.67)  
   Immunosuppressive drugsb alone or with corticosteroids 22 105.34 (195.29)  
   Antimalarials, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugsb 12 16.89 (50.70)  
  1. aTNFα values are median (interquartile range). bMethotrexate, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine A or mycophenolate mophetil. Differences were evaluated by Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric testing. NSAIDS, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.