Increase in CD40-positive DCs pre-dates lupus onset of disease, whereas CD80/CD86 balance is normal. Percentages of cells positive for CD80 (a), CD86 (b), and CD40 (c) in DCs from spleens of young (6 to 8 weeks old) mice. We analyzed DCs as described in Figure 2. Results of the Kruskal-Wallis test analyses are shown in the graphs (k-w) and the post hoc Mann-Whitney test analyses are shown below the graphs. N.S. indicates p > 0.05.