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Table 1 Effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, glucocorticosteroids and bisphosphonates on human pregnancy and fertility

From: Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction

Drug FDA riska Transplacental passage Human teratogenicity Fetal/neonatal adverse effects Long-term effects in offspring Impairment of fertility
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs B/D Yes No In late pregnancy, constriction of the ductus arteriosus, reduction of renal blood flow Not studied Cases of inhibition of follicle rupture
Prednisone B Limited Increase in oral clefts Rare (cataract, adrenal insufficiency, infection) Not studied Not studied
Dexamethasone C Yes Not reportedb Neurodevelopmental abnormalities Not studied Not studied
Betamethasone C Yes Not reportedb Neurodevelopmental abnormalities ? Not studied Not studied
Bisphosphonates C Not studied Not reported Two cases of hypocalcaemia in the newborn infant Not studied Not studied
  1. Details and references are given in the text. aThe United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy risk categories are as follows: A, no risk in controlled clinical studies in humans; B, human data reassuring or when absent, animal studies show no risk; C, human data are lacking; animal studies show risk or are not done; D, positive evidence of risk, benefit may outweigh; X, contraindicated during pregnancy. bNo indication for maternal use in the first trimester.