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Table 2 Anti-inflammatory medications

From: Human pregnancy safety for agents used to treat rheumatoid arthritis: adequacy of available information and strategies for developing post-marketing data

Class Agent FDA pregnancy category Adverse effects in human pregnancy Summary risk assessment
Corticosteroids Prednisone C Oral clefts increased risk (two- to three-fold). Intrauterine growth restriction (dose related) Based on available data, teratogenic risk for corticosteroids is minimal
  Cortisone D   
  All others C   
NSAIDs Celecoxib C Ibuprofen associated with increased risk (two- to three-fold) for gastroschisis. NSAIDs associated with increased risk for spontaneous abortion; possible increased risk for cardiac defects; premature closure of the ductus arteriosus with third trimester use Significant risk for premature closure of the ductus arteriosus and other complications when exposure occurs in late pregnancy; minimal or undetermined risk for structural defects following first trimester exposure
  Diclofenac C   
  Ketorolac C   
  Prixicam C   
  All others B   
  All NSAIDs in third trimester D   
  1. NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.