Effects of a 3-tesla electromagnetic field on glycosaminoglycan synthesis. (a) Bovine metarcarpophalangeal joints (n = 5) were exposed to a 3-tesla electromagnetic field (EMF); untreated joints (n = 5) served as controls (control). Cartilage samples were obtained aseptically from the joints and labeled with [35S]sulfate for 4 hours. The incorporated radiolabel into the newly synthesized matrix macromolecules was then measured and normalized to hydroxyproline content of the explants. Results are means and SD. *p < 0.0002 versus 'pulsed EMF'. (b) Subsequently, sulfated glycosaminoglycans in the supernatant of the explant cultures were measured. Results are means and SD.