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Table 2 Means, SDs, and F and P values for ANOVA effects for group, time, and group × time (G × T) and T and P values for the main outcome variables

From: Psychological pain treatment in fibromyalgia syndrome: efficacy of operant behavioural and cognitive behavioural treatments

Outcome variables
       Main effects    
Outcome variables Group Pre-treatment Mean (SD) Post-treatment Mean (SD) 6-month f/u Mean (SD) 12-month f/u Mean (SD) Group
F
P
Time
F
P
G × T
F
P
T1 vs. T2
T
P
T1 vs. T3
T
P
T1 vs. T4
T
P
FIQ – Physical impairment CBT 4.35 (2.12) 3.64 (2.30) 3.00 (2.43) 3.42 (2.29)     2.45 ns 0.71 ns 0.84 ns
  OBT 4.77 (2.24) 4.50 (1.91) 3.94 (2.06) 2.63 (1.57)     0.10 ns 0.63 ns 3.13 0.004
  AP 4.19 (2.08) 4.03 (2.09) 4.77 (2.60) 5.20 (2.51)     0.17 ns -2.27 ns -2.90 0.006
CBT vs. OBT (F, P) 1.28 ns 5.02 ns 1.73 ns 1.94 ns 3.07 ns 0.68 ns 6.57 0.001    
CBT vs. AP (F, P) 0.01 ns 1.28 ns 4.79 ns 6.36 0.010       
OBT vs. AP (F, P) 1.06 ns 0.76 ns 1.35 ns 16.38 <0.001       
Pain intensity CBT 4.15 (0.84) 3.54 (1.03) 3.73 (0.94) 3.18 (1.42)     3.45 0.002 3.14 0.003 4.32 0.001
  OBT 4.22 (0.99) 4.12 (1.12) 3.77 (0.94) 3.05 (1.40)     0.56 ns 3.29 0.002 4.64 <0.001
  AP 3.80 (0.99) 3.79 (1.07) 4.07 (1.07) 4.14 (1.46)     0.39 ns -2.82 0.008 -2.08 ns
CBT vs. OBT (F, P) 0.21 ns 2.23 ns 0.15 ns 0.49 ns 1.83 ns 11.70 <0.001 11.95 <0.001    
CBT vs. AP (F, P) 2.72 ns 1.04 ns 2.94 ns 8.77 0.004       
OBT vs. AP (F, P) 2.74 ns 1.69 ns 1.82 ns 11.79 0.001       
MPI – Affective distress CBT 3.22 (1.02) 2.84 (1.10) 2.57 (1.05) 2.56 (1.24)     2.02 ns   
  OBT 3.17 (1.44) 3.31 (1.29) 3.14 (1.23) 2.92 (1.23)     -0.61 ns   
  AP 3.54 (1.29) 3.62 (1.34) 3.99 (1.37) 4.16 (1.44)     -0.90 ns   
CBT vs. OBT (F, P) 0.29 ns 2.43 ns 2.88 ns 1.09 ns 8.34 0.001 0.28 ns 5.89 <0.001    
CBT vs. AP (F, P) 1.96 ns 6.97 ns 20.65 <0.001 27.83 <0.001       
OBT vs. AP (F, P) 2.79 ns 0.96 ns 4.94 ns 9.26 0.004       
Number of physician visits CBT 30.55 (16.20)    25.27 (18.47)       1.79 ns
  OBT 36.87 (15.15)    16.35 (18.26)       5.57 <0.001
  AP 34.13 (12.17)    47.65 (20.01)       -5.56 <0.001
CBT vs. OBT (F, P) 2.59 ns    4.77 0.010 10.99 <0.001 5.59 0.020 33.52 <0.001    
CBT vs. AP (F, P) 1.16 ns    24.22 <0.001       
OBT vs. AP (F, P) 0.72 ns    46.04 <0.001       
  1. Comparisons refer to pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups in the CBT, OBT, and AP groups. ANOVA, analysis of variance; AP, attention-placebo; CBT, cognitive behavior therapy; FIQ, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; f/u, follow-up; MPI, Multidimensional Pain Inventory; ns, not significant; OBT, operant behaviour therapy; SD, standard deviation.