Examination of tissue and cell expression of IL-32 by quantitative real-time PCR. (a) Tissue expression of IL-32. WBC, white blood cells. (b) Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressed IL-32. PBMCs were cultured with or without concanavalin A. PBMCs were also stimulated by immobilized anti-human CD3 and anti-human CD28 antibodies. Cont, control. (c) IL-32 expression of monocytes and B cells after the depletion of CD3+ cells. (d) Peripheral CD4+ T cells were cultured with the indicated inflammatory cytokines for 24 hours. (e) Human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) for 24 hours to induce maturation. The data are representative of at least three independent studies.