Transfer of human IL-32β-transduced CD4+ T cells exacerbated collagen-induced arthritis. Human IL-32β-transduced CD4+ T cells were transferred to collagen-immunized mice before the onset of arthritis (day 23). In one group (IL-32β + etanercept group), 50 μg/day etanercept was administered intraperitoneally for 14 days after transfer of CD4+ T cells. Each group consisted of 14 mice. (a) Arthritis scores and the percentage incidence of arthritis. (b) Cell infiltration, pannus formation, and bone erosion in CIA mice are quantified. Histological scores are shown as the mean ± standard deviation. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, IL-32β group versus mock group or IL-32β + etanercept group. ns, not significant.