Effects of MLN51-knock-down on the growth of RA FLSs. (a) Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs; 104 cells; rheumatoid arthritis (RA) 2–14, at passage 5) were transfected with 4 μg of hMLN51 siRNA or control siRNA. The transfected cells were cultured in growth medium and counted each day for 5 days. The trypan blue exclusion method was used to evaluate cell proliferation. The results are means ± SD from single experiments performed in triplicate cultures. (b) MLN51 expression according to the above result was monitored by RT-PCR. See the Materials and methods section for a detailed description. This result is representative of two separate experiments.