Induction of Synoviolin (SYN) expression by proinflammatory cytokines. (a) Mouse synovial fibroblasts were starved for 24 hours and then cultivated for 48 hours with each proinflammatory cytokine, including 10 ng/ml of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, or IL-6. The expression of SYN was tested by Western blotting by using anti-SYN antibody (top panel). As a control, the protein level of actin was detected using the same membrane (bottom panel). (b) The total RNA from the cultured synovial fibroblasts was isolated and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. The levels of SYN cDNA were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction by using SYN-specific primers. Error bars represent the results from three independent experiments (mean ± standard deviation).