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Table 2 Genes whose expression showed the greatest change following incubation of chondrocytes with elevated glucosamine alone

From: Exogenous glucosamine globally protects chondrocytes from the arthritogenic effects of IL-1β

Genes whose mean RNA levels were reduced >80% relative to untreated control cultures
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 8 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 Kinesin-like protein 1 Selenium binding protein 2
Bone morphogenetic protein 4 Cytoskeleton associated protein 2 Kinesin-related protein KRP1 Shc SH2-domain binding protein 1
Calmodulin DVS27-related protein Lactose operon repressora Solute carrier family 4, member 4
Carbonic anhydrase 3 Dynein, cytoplasmic, intermediate chain 1 Microtubule-associated motor KIF4 Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3, neutral
Cell cycle protein division p55CDC ER transmembrane protein Dri 42 NAD-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin deshydrogenase Testin (TES1/TES2)
Cell division cycle 2 homolog A Esk splice form 1 Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated gene 4Aa Thymidine kinase 1
Cell proliferation antigen Ki-67 Frizzled related protein (sfrp2 gene)a Neuropilin Topoisomerase (DNA)2 alpha
Cell-cycle-dependent 350K nuclear protein G2/mitotic-specific cyclin B1a NUF2R protein Transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 3
c-fos-induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D) Glycine amidinotransferase (l-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase) Pituitary tumor-transforming 1 Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme
Chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 12a Heat shock protein 90 beta Polo-like kinase homolog Vascular endothelial growth factor D precursor
Clathrin light chain A (Lca) Hyaluronon mediated motility receptor (RHAMM) Protein regulating cytokinesis 1  
Cyclin B1 Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 Rac GTPase-activating protein 1a  
Genes whose mean RNA levels were increased more than fivefold relative to untreated controls
Aldose reductase-like protein High mobility group AT-hook 1 Plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 type a Vesicle-associated membrane protein 1
ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G (WHITE), member 1 Matrix metalloproteinase 13 Smhs 1 protein V-maf musculoapaneurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family protein B
CD28 antigen Myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase A1 Sodium-coupled ascorbic acid transporter 2  
FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 2 NADH-ubiquitone oxidoreductase MLRQ subunit Solute carrier family 1, member 3  
  1. aMultiple probe sets.