Induction of multiple matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) protein by Staphylococcus aureus in human dermal fibroblasts. Confluent monolayers of human primary dermal fibroblasts were exposed to (I) phosphate-buffered saline, (II) 25 μg/well of total protein from clarified whole cell lysates of S. aureus cells, (III) 25 μg of total protein from the filtered culture supernatant of S. aureus, and (IV) treated with 10 ng/m each of interleukin-1β/tumor necrosis factor-α (IL-1β/TNF-α) for 48 hours. The fibroblast culture supernatants were harvested and the MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were detected using the MMP-Array kit from RayBiotech, Inc. (Norcross, GA, USA). Culture supernatant and cell lysate from S. aureus induced the expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-10, and MMP-13. A similar pattern was observed in IL-1β/TNF-α-treated fibroblasts, which were slightly more intense. There was upregulation of both TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 as well.