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Table 5 Genes significantly upregulated or downregulated in lipopolysaccharide-challenged groups 2, 3, and 4

From: Effects of hyaluronan treatment on lipopolysaccharide-challenged fibroblast-like synovial cells

Full or provisional gene annotation (accession number) Function or activity in joint inflammationa Fold change Pair-wise comparisons (adjusted P values)
   Group 3/group 2 Group 4/group 2 Group 3 vs group 2 Group 4 vs group 2
IL-6 (U64794) Proinflammatory mediator [46] 0.45 0.34 0.0015 0.0015
Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (AF034087) Connective tissue structure and remodeling [40] 0.10 0.11 0.0039 0.0005
Cathepsin S (CD468903) Proteolysis and matrix degradation [47] 0.47 0.57 0.0022 0.0005
Manganese superoxide dismutase (BM734930) Antioxidant [48] 0.62 0.71 0.0040 0.0040
Manganese superoxide dismutase (BI960803)   0.50 0.64 0.0117 0.0024
Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (AF148882) Connective tissue structure and remodeling [40] 0.32 0.35 0.0050 0.0003
Matrix metalloproteinase 3 (U62529) Connective tissue structure and remodeling [40] 0.24 0.19 0.0035 0.0051
Guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha inhibiting 1 (CD465125) G-protein signaling, adenylate cyclase inhibitor [49] 0.62 0.66 0.0079 0.0046
V-maf oncogene (BM735497) Unknown 0.60 0.59 0.0035 0.0095
Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 dominant negative helix–loop–helix protein (CD536136) Positive regulation of cell proliferation [50] 0.60 0.66 0.0172 0.0038
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (BM780455) Inhibitor of proteolytic activity in rheumatoid arthritis [51,52] 2.93 2.59 0.0002 <0.0001
Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (AF508034)   2.11 2.15 0.0025 <0.0001
hnRNP core protein A1 (CD469785) Target of antinuclear autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis [41] 1.41 1.40 0.0114 0.0028
Aurora-A kinase interacting protein 1 (BM735310) Positive regulator of proteolysis 1.31 1.35 0.0215 0.0044
Dyskerin (CD536222) RNA binding, processing, and modification 2.30 1.74 0.0046 0.0028
Cyclin D2 (CD467520) Induced by type I interferons after lipopolysaccharide exposure; cell cycle regulation 1.24 1.50 0.0500 0.0020
Isoleucine tRNA synthetase (CD535292) Isoleucyl-rRNA aminocylation 1.36 1.50 0.0254 0.0015
Nuclear ubiquitous casein kinase 2 (CD535471) Kinase in NF-κB cascade [53] 1.62 1.55 0.0294 0.0048
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (BM781180) Translation initiation factor 1.95 1.33 0.0048 0.0050
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5 (CD465311)   2.26 1.55 0.0146 0.0013
Unknown (BM780356) Unknown 1.28 1.55 0.0316 0.0011
  1. Three individual donors are represented for each group. aBased on the Gene Ontology Database description and the literature (see references). Statistically significant P values are in bold. Group 2, lipopolysaccharide control; group 3, pretreatment and sustained treatment with lower molecular weight hyaluronan product; group 4, pretreatment and sustained treatment with higher molecular weight hyaluronan product.