Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in the lungs and submandibular glands of MRL/lpr mice. (a) Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on total RNA prepared from lungs and submandibular glands of five mice at ages 8, 10, 12, 16, and 20 weeks during the development of pneumonitis and sialadenitis as described in Materials and methods. Results are calculated as a ratio of MCP-1 expression to the expression of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1). (b) Representative immunohistochemistry results are shown. Formalin-fixed sections were deparaffinized and incubated with biotin-labeled goat anti-mouse MCP-1 polyclonal antibody, and the expression of MCP-1 was detected with avidin-biotin-peroxidase. The sections were counterstained with hematoxylin. MRL/lpr, MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr.