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Table 3 Rate ratios for rheumatoid arthritis across quintiles of meat, poultry, and fish consumption among women in the Nurses' Health Study, 1980 to 2002

From: Protein, iron, and meat consumption and risk for rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective cohort study

  Quintile Median intake (servings/day) Number of cases Age-adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) Multivariatea rate ratios (95% CI)
Total meat (red meat and poultry) 1 0.82 118 1.00 1.00
  2 1.20 107 0.91 (0.70–1.18) 0.89 (0.68–1.17)
  3 1.52 127 1.08 (0.84–1.39) 1.09 (0.84–1.42)
  4 1.89 94 0.79 (0.60–1.04) 0.81 (0.61–1.08)
  5 2.54 100 0.86 (0.65–1.12) 0.91 (0.67–1.23)
     P for trend = 0.18b P for trend = 0.55b
Red meat 1 0.53 123 1.00 1.00
  2 0.89 112 0.92 (0.71–1.18) 0.92 (0.71–1.19)
  3 1.21 115 0.92 (0.72–1.19) 0.95 (0.73–1.23)
  4 1.57 98 0.80 (0.61–1.04) 0.82 (0.62–1.09)
  5 2.22 98 0.80 (0.62–1.05) 0.86 (0.64–1.16)
     P for trend = 0.09b P for trend = 0.35b
Poultry 1 0.09 76 1.00 1.00
  2 0.14 134 0.92 (0.69–1.22) 0.91 (0.69–1.21)
  3 0.22 89 0.84 (0.62–1.14) 0.86 (0.63–1.17)
  4 0.33 97 0.89 (0.66–1.21) 0.94 (0.69–1.28)
  5 0.48 150 1.16 (0.88–1.54) 1.17 (0.88–1.55)
     P for trend = 0.06b P for trend = 0.06b
Fish 1 0.07 106 1.00 1.00
  2 0.13 125 0.94 (0.73–1.22) 0.94 (0.73–1.23)
  3 0.17 92 1.02 (0.76–1.37) 1.09 (0.81–1.47)
  4 0.25 114 0.95 (0.71–1.26) 1.06 (0.80–1.40)
  5 0.44 109 0.99 (0.75–1.30) 0.96 (0.72–1.26)
     P for trend = 0.90b P for trend = 0.88b
  1. In all, 82,063 women were included and there were 546 incident cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Diet was assessed in 1980, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. Nutrient intakes were cumulatively updated over follow up. aThe multivariate models were adjusted for age, total energy intake, body mass index, smoking, and total lifetime breastfeeding. bAll P values for trend were calculated with median intake of each food in each quintile as a continuous variable. CI, confidence interval.