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Table 2 NSAIDs and concurrent medication in use at the time of the gastrointestinal event

From: Proton-pump inhibitors are associated with a reduced risk for bleeding and perforated gastroduodenal ulcers attributable to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a nested case-control study

Medication Cases (n = 104) Controls (n = 284) OR 95% CI p
Non-selective NSAIDs      
   Indometacin 3 (2.9) 4 (1.4) 2.08 0.46–9.45 0.39
   Naproxen 10 (9.6) 14 (4.9) 2.05 0.88–4.78 0.09
   Diclofenac 44 (42.3) 108 (38.0) 1.20 0.76–1.89 0.44
   Diclofenac–misoprostol 8 (7.7) 19 (6.7) 1.16 0.49–2.74 0.73
   Other NSAIDs 3 (2.9) 8 (2.8) 1.03 0.27–3.94 1.00
   Ibuprofen 16 (15.4) 69 (24.3) 0.57 0.31–1.03 0.06
   High-dose aspirin (>100 mg/day) 2 (1.9) 0 (0.0) - - 0.07
Selective NSAIDs      
   Rofecoxib 16 (15.4) 42 (14.8) 1.05 0.56–1.96 0.88
   Celecoxib 1 (1.0) 8 (2.8) 0.34 0.04–2.71 0.46
   Meloxicam 1 (1.0) 12 (4.2) 0.22 0.03–1.71 0.20
Gastroprotective drugs      
   Proton-pump inhibitors 14 (13.5) 77 (27.1) 0.42 0.23–0.78 0.005
   H2RAs 4 (3.8) 9 (3.2) 1.22 0.37–4.06 0.74
   Misoprostol 8 (7.7) 20 (7.0) 1.10 0.47–2.58 0.83
Additional risk factors      
   High-dose NSAID 11 (10.6) 17 (6.0) 1.86 0.84–4.11 0.12
   More than one NSAID 12 (11.5) 54 (19.0) 0.56 0.28–1.09 0.08
   Low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg/day) 32 (30.8) 69 (24.3) 1.39 0.84–2.28 0.20
   Clopidogrel/dipyridamole 5 (4.8) 9 (3.2) 1.54 0.51–4.72 0.54
   Coumarin 14 (13.5) 19 (6.7) 2.17 1.05–4.51 0.04
   Low-molecular-mass heparin 13 (12.5) 2 (0.7) 20.14 4.46–90.94 <0.001
   SSRIs 6 (5.8) 9 (3.2) 1.87 0.65–5.39 0.24
   Corticosteroids 14 (13.5) 32 (11.3) 1.23 0.63–2.40 0.55
Analgesics      
   Acetaminophen 45 (43.3) 54 (19.0) 3.25 1.99–5.29 <0.001
   Tramadol 12 (11.5) 6 (2.1) 6.04 2.21–16.56 <0.001
   Morphine 6 (5.8) 2 (0.7) 8.63 1.71–43.48 0.006
Cardiovascular drugs      
   Diuretics 34 (32.7) 57 (20.1) 1.93 1.17–3.20 0.009
   ACE inhibitors 24 (23.1) 32 (11.3) 2.36 1.32–4.25 0.003
   Digoxin 8 (7.8) 11 (3.9) 2.09 0.82–5.35 0.12
   Beta-blockers 22 (21.2) 64 (22.5) 0.92 0.53–1.59 0.77
   Nitrates 8 (7.7) 26 (9.2) 0.83 0.36–1.89 0.65
   Calcium-channel blockers 10 (9.6) 35 (12.3) 0.76 0.36–1.59 0.46
   Lipid-lowering drugs 9 (8.7) 38 (13.4) 0.61 0.29–1.32 0.21
Oral glucose-lowering drugs 12 (11.5) 15 (5.3) 2.34 1.06–5.18 0.03
Benzodiazepines 34 (32.7) 65 (22.9) 1.64 0.99–2.68 0.05
Inhalator therapy 22 (21.2) 56 (19.7) 1.09 0.63–1.90 0.76
DMARDs 14 (13.5) 20 (7.0) 2.05 0.99–4.23 0.05
  1. Scores are number of patients (percentage). NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; OR, unadjusted odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; H2RAs, histamine-2 receptor antagonists; SSRIs, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; DMARDs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. High-dose NSAID is more than the daily defined dose.