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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Effect of antioxidants on knee cartilage and bone in healthy, middle-aged subjects: a cross-sectional study

  Total (n = 293)
Age when magnetic resonance imaging performed (years) 58.0 (5.5)
Female (n (%)) 184 (63%)
Variables in 1990–1994  
   Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.2 (3.8)
   Vegetables (times/day) (median (interquartile range)) 5.0 (4.0–7.0)
   Fruits (times/day) (median (interquartile range)) 4.0 (2.0–5.0)
   Energy from dietary intake (kJ/day) 9,364.9 (3,067.5)
   Vitamin C (mg/day) 218.3 (107.3)
   Vitamin E (mg/day) 8.3 (3.4)
   Carotenoids  
α-Carotene (μg/day) 1,387.0 (697.3)
β-Carotene (μg/day) 5,821.1 (2,507.0)
β-Cryptoxanthin (μg/day) 421.3 (348.1)
Lutein and zeaxanthin (μg/day) 1,822.5 (908.9)
Lycopene (μg/day) 7,782.6 (5,067.5)
Variables in 2003–2004  
   Tibial cartilage volume (mm3) 3,731 (1,118)
   Presence of any tibiofemoral cartilage defects (n (%)) 181 (62%)
   Tibial plateau bone area (mm2) 3,302 (475)
   Presence of any tibiofemoral bone marrow lesions (n (%)) 39 (13%)
  1. Data presented as the mean (standard deviation), unless stated otherwise.