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Table 3 Relationship between carotenoid intake and knee structures

From: Effect of antioxidants on knee cartilage and bone in healthy, middle-aged subjects: a cross-sectional study

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  Regression coefficient (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) P value Regression coefficient (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)) P value
α-Carotene     
   Cartilage volumea -65.6 (-194.8 to 63.6) 0.32 -1.3 (-77.0 to 74.4) 0.97
   Cartilage defectsb 1.02 (0.81–1.30) 0.84 1.01 (0.79–1.30) 0.91
   Bone areac -32.8 (-87.6 to 22.0) 0.24 -3.8 (-33.1 to 25.4) 0.80
   Bone marrow lesionsd 1.15 (0.83–1.58) 0.40 1.13 (0.80–1.61) 0.48
β-Carotene     
   Cartilage volume -43.3 (-172.9 to 86.3) 0.51 2.5 (-75.6 to 80.6) 0.95
   Cartilage defects 0.97 (0.76–1.22) 0.77 0.95 (0.74–1.23) 0.72
   Bone area -26.3 (-81.3 to 28.6) 0.35 -12.5 (-42.7 to 17.6) 0.42
   Bone marrow lesions 0.97 (0.68–1.36) 0.85 0.92 (0.62–1.34) 0.65
β-Cryptoxanthin     
   Cartilage volume -27.2 (-155.9 to 101.5) 0.68 -32.5 (-108.1 to 43.1) 0.40
   Cartilage defects 0.87 (0.69–1.10) 0.25 0.89 (0.70–1.14) 0.36
   Bone area -8.4 (-63.1 to 46.3) 0.76 -25.5 (-54.4 to 3.5) 0.09
   Bone marrow lesions 0.64 (0.39–1.06) 0.08 0.64 (0.38–1.07) 0.09
Lutein and zeaxanthin     
   Cartilage volume 0.8 (-128.4 to 130.0) 0.99 -2.4 (-79.2 to 74.5) 0.95
   Cartilage defects 0.83 (0.65–1.05) 0.13 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.14
   Bone area -5.8 (-60.7 to 49.0) 0.84 -4.3 (-34.0 to 25.5) 0.78
   Bone marrow lesions 0.68 (0.44–1.06) 0.09 0.68 (0.43–1.08) 0.10
Lycopene     
   Cartilage volume 86.8 (-41.6 to 215.2) 0.19 -9.9 (-87.0 to 67.3) 0.80
   Cartilage defects 0.98 (0.78–1.24) 0.89 1.04 (0.81–1.35) 0.75
   Bone area 36.6 (-17.9 to 91.2) 0.19 -9.7 (-39.5 to 20.1) 0.52
   Bone marrow lesions 0.75 (0.49–1.15) 0.19 0.78 (0.51–1.21) 0.27
  1. aChange in tibial cartilage volume (mm3) per standard-deviation increase in the respective carotenoid intake before and after adjusting for energy intake, age, gender, body mass index, and tibial plateau bone area.
  2. bOdds ratio of tibiofemoral cartilage defects being present per standard-deviation increase in the respective carotenoid intake before and after adjusting for energy intake, age, gender, body mass index, and tibial cartilage volume.
  3. cChange in tibial plateau bone area (mm2) per standard-deviation increase in the respective carotenoid intake before and after adjusting for energy intake, age, gender, and body mass index.
  4. dOdds ratio of tibiofemoral bone marrow lesions being present per standard-deviation increase in the respective carotenoid intake before and after adjusting for energy intake, age, gender, and body mass index.