PCR analysis of WNT5B, ITGB2, MMP25 and SMAD3 expression between females and males in OA bone. For each gene, a graph depicts relative real-time PCR product/GAPDH cycle threshold (CT) ratios generated from osteoarthritis (OA) and control (CTL) female and male intertrochanteric bone samples analyzed. The mean of eight samples for each sample group analyzed is represented by black diamonds (mean values given alongside). Asterisks signify statistical significance (P < 0.01) for differential gene expression between OA and CTL bone. F, female; M, male.