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Table 5 Sensitivity and specificity of US, x-ray, and clinical examination, with MRI as the standard reference method

From: Ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, radiography, and clinical assessment of inflammatory and destructive changes in fingers and toes of patients with psoriatic arthritis

  US sensitivity US specificity X-ray sensitivity X-ray specificity Clinical examination sensitivity Clinical examination specificity
Bone erosions       
   MCP joint 0.56 0.93 0.38 0.99 NA NA
   PIP joint 0.57 0.88 0.40 0.95 NA NA
   DIP joint 0.00 0.99 0.67 0.97 NA NA
Bone proliferations       
   MCP joint 0.00 0.97 0.00 0.96 NA NA
   PIP joint 0.50 0.96 0.00 0.96 NA NA
   DIP joint 1.00 0.95 1.00 0.98 NA NA
Synovitis       
   MCP joint 0.70 0.88 NA NA 0.31 0.74
   PIP joint 0.50 0.88 NA NA 0.25 0.76
   DIP joint 0.40 0.87 NA NA 0.00 0.83
Tenosynovitis       
   MCP joint 0.38 0.99 NA NA NA NA
   PIP joint 1.00 0.86 NA NA NA NA
   DIP joint 0.67 0.98 NA NA NA NA
Insertional changes       
   Extensor tendons 0.50 0.96 NA NA NA NA
   Flexor tendons 1.00 0.95 NA NA NA NA
Capsular/extracapsular changes 1.00 0.88 NA NA NA NA
  1. The imaging modalities were ultrasonography (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), projection radiography (x-ray), and clinical examination. DIP, distal interphalangeal; MCP, metacarpophalangeal; NA, not applicable; PIP, proximal interphalangeal.