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Table 2 Potential sites of myelomonocytic activation in rheumatoid arthritis and corresponding steps of macrophage intermediate or terminal (trans) differentiation

From: Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophages

Compartment Location Differentiation step
Joint or juxta-articular Synovial membrane • Recently immigrated monocytes
   • Mφ (M1/M2? [64]; resident/inflammatory? [13])
   • Dendritic cells
  Cartilage-pannus junction
  Subchondral bone Osteoclasts
  Vascular endothelium -
Extra-articular Peripheral blood Circulating monocytes
  Bone marrow • Myelomonocytic precursors
   • Endothelial cells
  Subendothelial space Mφ/foam cells/pericytes
  Rheumatoid nodules Epitheloid cells and multinucleated giant cells
  Lung interstitial space Alveolar Mφ
  1. Mφ, macrophages. Reproduced with permission from Kinne RW, Stuhlmuller B, Palombo-Kinne E, Burmester GR: The role of macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. In Rheumatoid Arthritis. Edited by Firestein GS, Panayi GS, Wollheim FA. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006:55–75 [2].