Skip to main content

Table 5 Overview of anti-inflammatory cytokines relevant to macrophage (dys)function in rheumatoid arthritis

From: Cells of the synovium in rheumatoid arthritis. Macrophages

  Anti-inflammatory Dual Autocrine Main pathogenetic features
IL-1RA X - X Produced by differentiated Mφ and upregulated by pro-inflammatory mediators, including IL-1 itself or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor
Autocrine contribution to the termination of inflammatory reactions [54,55] (reviewed in [53,56])
IL-4 X - - Strong regulator of Mφ functions but virtually absent in synovial tissue [73,131-133]
IL-10 X - X Produced by synovial Mφ
Strong regulator of Mφ functions but relatively deficient in RA
Possesses autocrine features [73,74]
IL-11 X X - Regulator of Mφ functions in a paracrine regulatory loop with synovial fibroblasts [36,134]
IL-13 X X - Selective regulator of Mφ functions
Improves experimental arthritis (reviewed in [2,91])
IL-16 X X - Known as an anti-inflammatory molecule [135,136], IL-16 also has pro-inflammatory properties (that is, correlates with metalloprotease-3 levels, progression of joint destruction, and levels of other pro-inflammatory cytokines) [137,138].
IFN-β X - - Clear anti-inflammatory and anti-destructive effects in experimental arthritides
Therapy attempts in human RA thus far have been unsuccessful [149].
TGF-β X X X Produced by Mφ [78-80]
     Main regulator of connective tissue remodelling
     Potent inducer of hyaluronan synthase 1
     Induces synovial inflammation (reviewed in [80]) but also suppresses acute and chronic arthritis [81,82]
     Induces inflammation and cartilage degradation in a rabbit model [140]
     Possesses autocrine features
     MMP can affect TGF-β via shedding of latent TGF-β attached to decorin (disease-enhancing loop).
  1. IFN-β, interferon-beta; IL, interleukin; IL-1RA, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; Mφ, macrophage(s); RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-beta. Reproduced with permission from Kinne RW, Stuhlmuller B, Palombo-Kinne E, Burmester GR: The role of macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. In Rheumatoid Arthritis. Edited by Firestein GS, Panayi GS, Wollheim FA. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006:55–75 [2].