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Table 1 Functions of Jun and Fos proteins

From: Activator protein 1 (Fos/Jun) functions in inflammatory bone and skin disease

Activator protein 1 protein Phenotype Affected organs/cells
   H2Kb-Jun None None
   Ubiquitin C-JunBa Increased bone mass Not defined
   CD4-JunB Enhanced T helper cell 2 maturation Thymus, CD4 thymocytes
   Ubiquitin C-JunD Peripheral T cells and B cells reduced Lymphocytes
   H2Kb-Fos Osteosarcoma Bone, osteoblasts
   H2Kb-Fos/Rsk-2-/y Reduced osteosarcoma Bone, osteoblasts
   H2Kb-FosB None Bone
   TCRβ-ΔFosB Impaired T cell differentiation Thymus, immature thymocytes
   NSE-ΔFosB Osteosclerosis Bone, osteoblasts
   H2Kb-Fra-1 Osteosclerosis Bone, osteoblasts
   CMV-Fra-2 Occular malformations Anterior eye structure
   H2Kb-Fra-2a Increased bone mass, fibrosis Bone, internal organs, skin
   Jun Embryonic lethal on embryonic day 12.5 Liver, heart, neural crest
   JunB Embryonic lethal on embryonic day 10 Extraembryonic tissues
   JunD Male sterility Testis, spermatides
   c-Fos Osteopetrosis Bone, osteoclasts
   FosB Nurturing defect Brain, hypothalamus
   Fra-1 Embryonic lethal on embryonic day 9.5 Extraembyonic tissue
   Fra-2 Lethal at birth Bone, osteoclasts
   Alfp-cre Jun Liver regeneration defect Liver, hepatocytes
   Col2a1-cre Jun Scoliosis Bone, notochordal cells
   Nestin-cre Jun Axonal regeneration defect Central nervous system, motoneurons
   MORE-cre JunB Osteopenia Bone, osteoclasts, osteoblasts
   K5-cre Jun Eyes open at birth, reduced skin tumors Keratinocytes
   Nestin-cre Fos Learning defects Brain, hippocampal neurons
   MORE-cre Fra-1 Osteopenia Bone, osteoblasts
   K5-creERTJunB + Jun Psoriasis-like disease Skin, joints, keratinocytes
  1. Knockout, conditional knockout and gain of function (transgenic) approaches applied to study the role of Jun and Fos proteins during development and in diseases. The gain-of-function approaches were performed with different promoters, either leading to ubiquitous expression (for example, H2Kb, ubiquitin C, or cytomegalovirus (CMV)) or to tissue-specific expression (for example, CD4, TCRβ, or neuron-specific enolase (NSE)) of the transgenes. aUnpublished data from the Wagner Laboratory.