Sensitivity of three-dimensional measures to change due to simulated swelling. Various amount of clay (depicted in yellow) were added to a mannequin wrist and 2nd-5th metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) regions to represent swelling (a). The clay volume was estimated by forming the clay into a cube and measuring the length, width, and height with calipers. Different shapes of the same volume were used to simulate focal and diffuse swelling. Volume changes (b) and surface distribution index (SDI) changes (c) due to addition of clay are shown, with vertical bars representing the mean and standard deviation of three models. The dotted lines correspond to baseline volume and SDI. Large brackets encompass all values significantly greater than baseline. Small brackets represent comparison of focal and diffuse swelling measurements. *p < 0.05; †p < 0.01; ‡p < 0.001.