Inhibition of inflammatory mediator generation from activated human macrophages. (a) Rutoside (RU) decreased the generation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 but not IL-10 from activated human macrophages. (b) Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) generation from human activated macrophages after their incubation with various RU concentrations. RU decreases both intracellular NO (upper panel) and extracellular nitrites (lower panel). Specific inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NIL, 1 mM) was used as control. Results from three different cell preparations ± standard deviation are shown. *P value obtained as compared to activated cells. L-NIL, N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine/2HCl.