The evolution of arthritis severity scores of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) in rats following their treatment with rutoside (RU). (a) Arthritis clinical scores (upper panel) and body weight (lower panel) of young AIA rats following their treatment with 133 mg/kg subcutaneous doses of RU suspension, every 2 days × 5, as indicated by arrows starting after the appearance of clinical symptoms. As positive control, AIA rats received five injections of 30 mg/kg hydrocortisone (HC). Results are means from five rats from each group (standard deviation [SD] less than 25% for all groups). (b) External aspects of rat paws showing swelling (left), swelling + immobility (central), and healed paws following RU treatment (right). (c) Amelioration of arthritis severity scores (upper panel) and body weight (lower panel) of AIA rats following preventive treatment with 5 × 133 mg/kg doses of RU suspension, starting the first day of immunization, before AIA development. Results are means from five rats (SD less than 25% for all groups). (d) Cumulative AIA clinical scores from untreated rats, hydrocortisone (HC)-treated rats, or those treated by RU prior to AIA development (Pre-AIA) or following arthritis development (Post-AIA). Bars represents cumulative AIA severity scores over the course of 40 days of observation (days 0 to 40) of five rats from each group. *P value compared to untreated AIA rats.