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Table 2 Relative risk (95% confidence interval) for serious upper gastrointestinal bleed or myocardial infarction

From: What do we know about communicating risk? A brief review and suggestion for contextualising serious, but rare, risk, and the example of cox-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs

Information source Relative risk compared with non-use of coxib or NSAID
  Ibuprofen Naproxen Diclofenac All NSAIDs Celecoxib Rofecoxib
Upper GI bleed [6] 1.9 (1.6–2.2) 4.0 (3.5–4.6) 3.3 (2.8–3.9) 4.2 (3.9–4.6)   
Upper GI bleed [5] 1.7 (1.1–2.5) 9.1 (6.0–14) 4.9 (3.3–7.1)    
Hospital admission [7]     4.0 (2.3–6.9) 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 1.9 (1.3–2.8)
Upper GI bleed [70]     3.3 (2.4–4.4) 1.3 (0.7–2.8) 2.1 (1.2–3.5)
Upper GI bleed [71] 4.1 (3.1–5.3) 7.3 (4.7–11.4) 3.1 (2.3–4.2) 5.3 (4.5–6.2) 1.0 (0.4–2.1) 2.1 (1.1–4.0)
CV events [4] 1.07 (1.02–1.12) 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1.44 (1.32–1.56) 1.09 (1.06–1.13) 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 1.26 (1.17–1.36)
CV events [8] 1.07 (0.97–1.18) 0.97 (0.87–1.07) 1.40 (1.16–1.70) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 1.35 (1.15–1.59)
  1. Results for NSAIDs and coxibs were compared with non-use, from observational studies. These did not, or were unable to, produce dose-specific results. Bold lines represent relative risks or equivalent from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Coxib, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; GI = gastrointestinal; CV = cardiovascular.