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Table 2 Disease activity and lipid variables for the patients who followed the diet regimens for at least 3 months

From: Gluten-free vegan diet induces decreased LDL and oxidized LDL levels and raised atheroprotective natural antibodies against phosphorylcholine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized study

  Vegan diet patients Non-vegan diet patients
  Baseline 3 months P value 12 months P value Baseline 3 months P value 12 months P value
DAS28a 5.3 (5.0–5.7) 4.7 (4.3–5.2) 0.002 4.3 (3.8–4.9) <0.001 5.3 (4.9–5.6) 5.0 (4.6–5.3) 0.014 5.0 (4.6–5.4) 0.19
HAQ scorea 1.4 (1.2–1.5) 1.1 (0.9–1.3) 0.010 1.0 (0.8–1.2) 0.001 1.3 (1.1–1.5) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.62 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.59
CRPb 13 (6–26) 11 (5–29) 0.68 5 (4–20) 0.008 22 (5–32) 10 (5–33) 0.07 12 (4–19) 0.28
Albumina 36 (34–37) 34 (33–35) 0.013 36 (35–38) 0.43 35 (34–37) 37 (35–39) 0.06 37 (35–38) 0.06
Cholesterolb 5.2 (4.4–5.7) 4.3 (3.9–5.0) <0.001 4.3 (3.8–5.1) 0.003 4.7 (4.2–5.3) 5.1 (4.3–5.5) 0.20 5.0 (4.0–5.5) 0.68
Triglyceridesa 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 0.43 1.1 (0.9–1.2) 0.32 1.1 (0.9–1.5) 1.2 (0.7–1.6) 0.79 1.1 (0.8–1.3) 0.69
HDLa 1.4 (1.3–1.5) 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 0.14 1.4 (1.3–1.6) 0.22 1.3 (1.2–1.3) 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 0.045 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 0.07
LDLb 3.2 (2.6–3.7) 1.3 (1.2–1.6) <0.001 2.4 (2.1–3.0) <0.001 2.9 (2.5–3.4) 3.1 (1.2–1.5) 0.23 3.2 (2.4–3.5) 0.83
LDL/HDLa 2.7 (2.2–3.1) 2.0 (1.8–2.3) <0.001 1.9 (1.6–2.2) <0.001 2.4 (2.2–2.7) 2.5 (2.2–2.7) 1.00 2.2 (2.0–2.5) 0.22
oxLDLa 54.7 (46.2–63.2) 49.4 (43.0–55.8) 0.021 48.6 (41.7–56.5) 0.09 54.5 (45.9–63.1) 54.8 (46.2–63.4) 0.88 55.2 (45.6–64.7) 0.57
anti-PC, IgMa 778 (706–849) 812 (729–896) 0.39 822 (743–900) 0.057 797 (676–918) 742 (620–864) <0.001 731 (596–870) 0.003
anti-PC, IgGa 861 (761–962) 879 (785–974) 0.28 859 (760–957) 0.92 913 (814–1012) 900 (802–999) 0.46 880 (764–996) 0.47
anti-PC, IgAa 837 (588–1087) 938 (640–1234) 0.027 854 (595–1112) 0.26 0.62 798 (567–1030) 772 (539–1005) 0.17 745 (357–1028) 0.42
  1. aMean values (confidence interval 95%). bMedian values (25th to 75th percentile). P values are differences between baseline and 3 and 12 months, respectively, for each diet group. Anti-PC, antibody against phosphorylcholine; CRP, C-reactive protein; DAS28, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; oxLDL, oxidized low-density lipoprotein.