Soluble tissue factor-induced footpad inflammation. (a) Western blot of soluble tissue factor (sTF): 50 ng recombinant murine sTF (track 1) and 50 ng native TF (track 2) were detected using a polyclonal rabbit anti human TF antibody. (b) Effect of sTF injected into the footpad: 1 μg sTF (in 10 μl phosphate-buffered saline) was injected into the intraplantar region of the right hindfootpad. The contralateral footpad was injected with the same volume of phosphate-buffered saline. Swelling was observed in the sTF-injected footpad after 2 hours and was sustained over 24 hours (photograph). (c) Dose-dependent effect of sTF-induced inflammation: 0.2 to 5 μg sTF in 10 μl was administered into the hindfootpad. The contralateral footpad was injected with phosphate-buffered saline. Results expressed as the percentage increase in the right over left footpad thickness. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001, Wilcoxon rank sum test.